Joyce - Ulysses___Poor Wat

 

On page one, oddly, Mulligan is described as untonsured. Dedalus glimpses Mulligans gold tipped teeth and thinks Chrysostomas (golden mouth). Elsewhere Mulligan’s full name is given as Mallachi Roland St John Mulligan. Oliver Gogarty's (the man Mulligan is based on) middle name was St John. Firstly, I'm sure, Joyce wants us to know that Mulligan is a true representation of Gogarty's character but there was a St. John Chrysostom. He began his career as a monk. Later as bishop of Constantinople, he was exiled for criticising court morality. Mulligan is having a yellow day. He is wearing a yellow dressing gown. Later he dons a primrose waistcoat. He parodies the start of the mass. The "Liliata rutilantium" line from a prayer, asks that throngs of joyful confessors surround the soul of a dying person. Mulligan tells he pinched his mirror from Ursula, his household’s “skivvy." When Dedalus receives a visitation from his mother at the brothel, she asks him to say the prayer for suffering souls, in the Ursuline Manual. The "Liliata rutilantium" prayer is recorded in english, in the manual; a prayer for the agonising. She reminds him of an indulgence to be had. There is a passage on indulgences in the manual. I would say that Joyce had an aversion to the concept of indulgences. Another reason for his dislike of the devotion of the Sacred Heart. Chrysostom is quoted in support of its injunction to steer clear of the occasions of sin; plays and theatrical amusements. The manual gives a swingeing denouncement of the theatre. Shakespeare! He is quoted as enjoining the faithful not to be impious,(talking, laughing or saluting) during the mass. “Should we be suprised,” he said, “if thunder fell from the heaven to punish, such impiety.” Outside the manual, he said, “Do you wish to honour the body of Christ.” “Do not ignore him when he is hungry,” and quoted scripture, “I was hungry, and you fed me.” Also, criticising the rich, “Do you pay such honour to you excrements as to receive them into a silver pot, when another man, made in the image of God, is perishing in the cold.” Infamously, attacking christians who also worshiped with the Jews, he broadened his attack to one on the Jews. Historian, Paul Johnson says, it became the prototype for anti-semitic diatribes. The downside of having a golden mouth. The manual talks of the inability of the young to discern the snares of the world; the flowery path so often leading to a "fatal end,"(a significance of Mulligan’s primrose waistcoat). There was an expression, "A Roland for an Oliver," meaning, tit for tat. Gogarty is being told, he is getting pay back. The manual terms the sacrifice of the mass; a holocaust. The line in Malachy, “from the rising of the sun to its setting” (smoke offered up, in God's name, all over world), is seen as a prophesy of the mass. This surely was in Joyce’s mind when he wrote of Dan Occam’s thought, that throughout the world there was a continuos ringing of sacral bells. I imagine Malachy’s lines, “If then I am a father’ where is my honour,” spoken by God and God’s words to Israel, that he would smear their faces with the dung of their offerings, would have caught Joyce’s attention. The manual claims that it is a sort of mirror in which its readers can see how much they have kept the virtous impressions of their early youth. The deriv. of Mulligan, is tonsured or bald. I have a meagre knowledge of literature on Joyce so some of my spots may have been dealt or part dealt with by others and I'm not sure of a handful of my theories. Read with sceptism. I am learning the hard way a little learning is a dangerous thing.
Students (english) giving another a ragging - laughter shaken are “palefaces.” Joyce identifies the Irish with Native Americans. The citizen explicity so. He recalls during the famine, the “Times” gloating there would soon be as few Irish as Red Indians. I have heard of two Native American peoples, who sent what they could to the Irish, during the famine. One sent over $700, a lot of money for a poor people. European man was waging a genocidal war on them. I find it hard to fathom such magnamosity. Women (tourists) gripping the handrails of cars, have "pale faces." A character calls Parnell the chief. Dedalus thinks of the shells on Sandymount beach as wild sea money. Elsewhere the word wampum is used. It was a Native American word for shells sometimes used as currency and so on. Possibly, Washington Irvin's, "Traits of the Indian Character", helped opened Joyces' eyes to the paralells. For sure it is a telling piece .
Dedalus thinks of coal smoke drifting from the stairhead as “woodshadows.” In Ithaca, the creation of coal from primeval forest is commented on. A type of metempsychosis, which occur throughout Ulysses. The term is reminiscent of “wood shadows” and “woods woven shade” from Yeat’s, poem about Fergus, part quoted. People particularly if they are tending to fat or say they are melting or are smoking, are seen as burnt offerings. In Aeolus, under the heading, “The Calumet of Peace,” Crawford responds to a remark, “You and I are the fat in the fire.” “We haven’t got the chance of a snowball in hell.” The company are lighting up at the time. A character in “Comedy of Errors,” tells of his woman's greasiness and fatness. He says he could make a lamp of her and run away from her by her own light. “In the library, Dedalus thinks, “I am the fire apon the altar.” ” I am the sacrifical butter.” Soon after watching the “woodshadows,” Dedalus remembers carrying the incense boat at mass, literally to create ritual smoke as does the calumet. Out of print but some will track down a copy for you, Black Elk's,”The Sacred Pipe,” is some read. The words, holocaust; deriv., burnt wholly and burnt offering, crop up on occasion. The Dindshenchas give some suggestions as to how Slieve Bloom got its name. I note the gaelic word, that Bloom, as in Slieve Bloom, is a corruption of, is as far as I can make out, is a variant or the genitive of a word, meaning a blaze (Dinneen; Irish/English dictionary). Finn Mac Cumhail burned down a stockade there. Some punning is going on, I would say or possibly, the Finn Mac Cumhail story is a genuine hint at the origen of the name. In any case, Joyce got in on the act. The Sequence for the Dead, in the mass for the dead, given in the Ursuline Manual, begins, "The day of wrath, that dreadful day," "Shall the whole world in ashes lay." Smoke is seen as ritualistic. Smoke rising from a chimney,” from wide earth an altar”, brings the quote from Cymbeline, to Dedalus’s mind.
Laud we the gods
And let our crooked smokes climb to their nostrils
From our bless’d altars.
That night Dedalus has a mental image of light from the tower’s barbicans falling on the “smokepalled altarstones. “I take this to mean the fireplace and that fireplaces should be seen as altars of the sacred flame. I think the tower’s roof is also seen as an altar and as already stated, the earth is. According to Blake, “All that lives is holy.” Apparently to Joyce all that exists, with the exception of some that man has invented, is holy.


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Joyce - Ulysses___Poor Wat

 

The bishop of Cloyne, mentioned in Proteus, bishop Berkeley, concluded that if there were no conciousness perceiving the universe, it would not exist. This is of import to Dedalus. It is an arguement for reality being mind based. For Berkeley, Dedalus, William Blake, Vico and the beginning of St. John’s gospel , reality is mind based. Commentaters tell us the word “THE” in Finnegans Wake, represents the “Word” in the opening passage of St. John. Anna combines the gaelic definite articles, singular and plural and is a palindrome. I believe, this represents, the goddess of time reflecting in her shattered mirror, imperfect, inverse images of the Word, which is in God. Berkeley went on to ask a strange question. Did things exist when no one was looking at them. Two limericks, admittedly penned after 1904, celebrated this question. One went:
There once was a man who said, God,
Must think it exceedingly odd
If he finds that the tree
Continues to be
When theres no-one about in the quad.
It was answered:
Dear Sir,
I find your astonishment odd
I am always about in the quad
And that's why the tree
Will continue to be
Since observed by, Yours faithfully,
God.
So on the beach Dedalus closes his eyes. The world might disappear when it wasn’t perceived. When he opens his eyes, suprise, its still there. For Dedalus perception is comprised of all the senses and the mind of course and perception is in large measure down to the way these have evolved. The deaf gardener is oblivious of the yelling, laughing students, involved in the ragging. For him these students don’t exist. Bloom tries to imagin the Dublin of the blind. The differences of the sense organs of other life forms is noted. It is pointed out the moth’s attraction to the lamp, is down to an illusion caused by its fixed multiple eyes. Insects may not have our understanding but they have a vivid awareness of reality. As a species, their pin heads can deal with life's exisgencies. Much like us. Dedalus does not believe reality is entirely sujective. I imagin Dedalus believes that is a road to nowhere.
A section of Aeolus, about Nelson’s Pillar, is entitled “Horatio is Cynosure this Fair June Day.” The deriv. of cynosure is dog’s tail. If we have another cat I’ll call it Cynosure. The word gets its meaning from having been a name for the Pole Star. I think it possible that Nelson’s Pillar is the world tree and yes, the world tree is a plum tree. I am advised by someone who has a far greater grasp of Ulysses than I have, that this theory does not hold water and I think they may well be right but I am not certain. Certainly it would be a false axis mundi. The episode makes clear that many Irish were only too aware that it was the monument of a hero of the nation that subjugated them, dominating their city centre. It's phallic quality is driven home, but then many thoughtful modern men struggle for a legitimate foundation to build their life on, and the parable about it, is shot through with humour. Two old girls at the top of the Pillar eat plums, the heaven fruit and spit the pips (aeroliths) down. In Lestrygonians, the phrase, all up a plumtree, crosses Bloom’s mind. Hamlet uses the phrase plum tree gum,(a malady of plum trees). Mankind has not left myth behind. In our of age uncertainty, he sometimes embraces debased mth. Think of some Hollywood productions, that many have identified with. Ulysses provides a mythic dimension, albeit, sometimes, tongue in cheek. Bloom's pun comes after a moments derision, at the Plumtree's advert, being placed under the obituaries. Could these poor souls be, being placed among the stars. Eric Partridge in his,"Shakespeare's Bawdy," says, fun is being had in Shakespeare's,"Henry VI," with plums being slang for the female pudenda. Before Crawford learns, that the women sat down on their petticoats, he will have had a mental image of them giving Dublin a Pisgah sight of the promised land or the the forbidden fruit. If, mythic trees are alluded to, Joyce has the extra excuse, that the sinificance of mythic trees overlap. These vestals are as much celtic priestesses of Brigid as of Vesta. Most importantly, Brigid was the goddess of fire and the spring sun and then among other things of poetry and midwifery. St. Brigid took over much attributed to the goddess. Bright golden hair, an intense aura of light, etc. Image of the sunlight running from Berkeley Road when Bloom is returning with the kidney. Nineteen of her nuns spent a night apiece tending a perpetual fire and on the twentieth night, even after her death, Brigid was said to tend it. Eventually, it was pronounced a pagan atrocity. It is thought the number of nuns tending the fire was a continuation of pagan practice. This, I'm guessing, accounts for why we are told the two women wiped their twenty fingers. Brigid's feast day was the 1st. February. Scholars tell us that the feast of the purification of the Virgin Mary or Candlemass, the 2nd. Feb., is a christian spin on feasts of pagan godesses identified with the returning sun and the reinvigoration of nature. Joyce's birthday was on the 2nd. Feb. I think he had a streak of superstitiousness. If you can't accept that, how about he subscribed to a similiar theory to Jung's theory of synchronicity. For sure he liked puns. In Scotland, on Brigid's Eve, corn dollies were made and given a crystal (or a like substance) heart, called the guiding star of Bride. Legend had it, that Brigid followed the star of Bethlahem and was Mary's midwife. If cynosure is more than the best word in context, this may be a significance of it. It must be remembered, though, that Vesta's festival was from the 7th. to the 15th. of June. To anyone thinking of embarking on Joyce's, Ulysses, it is more than just fun and games. It is a serious contemplation. During the conversation, in the press office, Moses crops up twice. He forged a concept of god still accepted and freed his nation from subjegation. A truer centre of the Dublin psyche?
One of the gaelic words for diamond is deamainn. Deamhan aeir ( the H denotes that in traditional gaelic script, the M is accented is pronounced as V or W), means demons of the air or fallen angels (Dinneen). A few puns in Finnegans Wake are based on how words are spelt rather than how they sound. For that matter diamonds and demons are similiar words. Looking in the lapidary’s window, Dedalus thinks of the gems, as evil lights flung from the brows of fallen archangels. Dedalus believes that Shakespeare never forgot the crystal blue, latticed windows in his Stratford bedroom. Demons of the air! In Cymbeline, when Iachimo gains access to Imogen’s bedroom he notes the lace on the windows are with the ‘blue of heavens own tinct ‘. He notes the cinque spotted mole on Imogen’s breast, like the crimson spots in the bottom of the cowslip. When parodying the mass, Mulligan uses the word ouns: abbrev., zounds; archaic, abbrev., God’s wounds. There is so often significances, other than the immediate one, to lines in Ulysses. I have a gut feeling that for Joyce, Imogen’s crimson spots are Christ’s wounds. If this is not a significance intended by Shakespeare, maybe Joyce will win Shakespeare’s cinque spotted mole, like Hendrix won Dylan’s, "All Along the Watchtower." A diamond is the devil of the piece.

Joyce - Ulysses___Poor Wat

 

Iachimo is in the bedroom in a bid to win a diamond. The brothel floor has a rhomboidal design on it and is imprinted with foot marks of ghostly past dancers. The king sucks a lozenge, not just because Joyce finds amusing, a lozenge manufacturer to his, Majesty the King. Who will deny there lurks a demon of the air, in the mouths of kings. One of the trumped up charges against St. Chrysostom was that he sucked a lozenge before taking the eucharist. A line from who killed cock robin, crosses Blooms mind, at the funeral. In that rhyme the the kite agrees to carry the coffin. "Chomh fial leis an ean fionn," translates as, about as generous as a kite,(Dinneen). In Aeolus, under the heading, "A Street Cortege,"(a funereal allusion), street urchins taking the mick out of Bloom, are seen as the bow knots of a kite, strung out behind him. A kite is diamond shaped. This imagery comes to a head, when Bloom witnesses an apparition of his dead son, with diamond and ruby buttons. Does being an apparition makes Rudy a demon of the air. To, "Tighim o tigh an 'diabhail' go tigh an 'deamhain': - diabhail,devil ; deamhain, demon; Dinneen gives the english expression, "I jump out of the frying pan into the fire," by way of explaination. Out of the frying pan of life into the fire of purgatory, thinks Bloom. The Dinneen first edition was published 1904. The second edition 1927, had two and a half times the amount of material. Some of my references may not have been in the first edition but most look to me to be a part of the significance, invested by Joyce. Father Dinneen makes an appearance in Ulysses. Dosn’t everybody. On behalf of Joyce, Crawford adds Jakes M’Carthy to the roll call. Dinneen’s appearance though, surely, is a wink to gaelic speakers, to keep a weather eye open for gaelic word usage.
I leave aside veiled significance for a little and sort of go in to bat for Joyce, on the charge of cloacal obession. Whether he had or no, I am not sure. What I can say is, there are valid reasons for some said on the subject. Anna Liffey is depicted as a poisonous sewer. Manifestly this saddens Joyce. A problem our civilisization has tried to address for a long time. The sands near her estuary smell. Bloom thinks there would be money, in recycling the nutriments leached from the soil as fertiliser, as in the natural cycle. It is a frightening waste of earth’s chemicals but I can’t see anyone working in this recycling industry. ” Our dungy earth alike feeds beast as man,” Anthony and Cleopatra. In cities animal droppings don't return to the earth. A reason for the passage of the street sweeper cleaning horse dung. The arch where a gipsy woman waits is mired by dogs. A problem we have recently tackled. Joyce does not pretend the fundamental realities, (pun intended) do not exist. Joyce’s contemplation includes the commonplace and profane, sometimes thought insignificant. This may be one reason why Bloom and Dedalus have a wee under,"the heaventree of stars, hung with humid nightblue fruit." Both wee and stars are intrinsic to our existence. Remembering our basic functions is an antidote to vainess and the temptation to live in cloud cuckoo land. The sound of a chamber pot, links Joyce with an epiphanic memerory. I don’t see much significance of some said in this vein. Others may. He returns to the subject to often for my liking but then he returns to many subjects/motifs over and over. His way of building multi-layerd meaning.
Now for an unspoken pun. Liliata rutilantium is punned on by lilia rutilant, (red glowing lillies). I think I've conjugated and declined that correctly. Hence redhead, Lily Carlisle comes up in conversation. Lily hands meant delicate white hands. Hence Dedalus remembers his mothers finger nails covered in lice blood, when delousing her children. Did a strapped for cash father, come home with red lillies, to lay on his wife. In Scylla and Charybdis, the phrases come one after the other, -"under few cheap flowers. Liliata rutilantium." Molly thought someone who visited her ailing husband, bought the cheapest flowers she could find. The Ursuline Manual says all objects used in the mass have mysterious meaning and of course there is an esoteric undercurrent running through Ulysses. Modern man yearns for such meaning but many find such correspondence naive.
In Sirens, Bloom clues us to the “horn hawhorn" motif. He remembers a blackbird singing two notes in one, in Hawthorn Valley. A ‘T’ is inserted into hawhorn. The name of the leter T, in the Greek and Hebrew alphabets means a cross. Dedalus in “Oxen of the Sun” says, “Times ruins builds eternities mansions,” means that when the thorntree is blasted by the winds of desire, it becomes a bramble and puts forth a rose on the rood of time. ”To the Rose on the Rood of Time,” is a Yeat’s poem. In it the words “rose breath” occurs. In Sirens the roses on the blouses of the barmaids, undulate as they breath. Lenehan’s sad “Rose of Castille,” joke is made in Aeolus, an episode representing the lungs. Let’s not forget that tramlines are rows of cast steel and tramlines figure in this episode. Again, an overwrought Bloom in Circe, clues us to this. He thinks a confused version of a joke. “What railway opera is like a tramline in Gibralter.” These lines radiate from a centre. I suspect some analogies. Pun lover that he was, the term blown roses, may be significant. Drummond of Hawthorndon’s, terrible cross was that his betrothed died on the eve of their wedding. The deriv. of Haines is hawthorn. Perhaps because no metempsychosis into a rose has taken place. He is not the most passionate. A triple phrase introducing, Oxen of the Sun, goes," Send us bright one, Light one, Horhorn quickening and wombfruit." The episode takes place in a maternity hospital, run by a Dr. Horne. Horhorn sounds like hawhorn. Again hor is possibly a homonym of whore. Quickening is a term used of a foetus that has gained movement. Archaically, quicken may mean to kindle or make a fire brighter. It may mean to give life or vigour. A hawthorn may be called a quickthorn. Scholars tell us that Michaelangelo's Moses is horned because of a mistranslation of the similar words for radient and horned in Hebrew scripture. A site I read said that Hebrew lacking vowels, the words spell the same. Moses's face is said to have shone on his descent from Sinae. A Hebraic pun. Well I never. Some authorities say that the deriv. of Kelly is bright one or bright head. That for some time it was thought, wrongly, to mean, frequenter of churches. More propose, strife or, of the woods. A streetorgan is playing,”Has anyone here seen Kelly” “As bad as old Antonio,” as the funeral cortage passes. Antonio, Kelly, M’Intosh, whores and horn, appear to be intertwined motifs. Just before Bloom spots M’Intosh, as he becomes known, he thinks, “We come to bury Caeser.” Mark Antony’s, speech in, Julius Caesar. When M’Intosh vanishes, he thinks, “Has anyone here seen kay, ee, double ell. When leaving the Ormond Bloom begins to wonder who M’Intosh is, when he spots a whore, an erstwhile acquaintance. In the evening he remembers his first time, with a young whore, Bridie Kelly. A misnomer underscored by Joyce, I believe:-"bride of darkness.....dare not bear the sunny-golden babe of day." Later again, a yarn telling seaman, says a friend of his, Antonio, was eaten by sharks. He adds,”As bad as old Antonio.” “He left me on my ownio.” At this juncture, the whore that Bloom had met earlier, looks in the door. Towards the end of, Oxen of the Sun, M'Intosh is in some way equated with a Dusty Rhodes. All I can find on Dusty Rhodes on the net, is his name was James Stoddart Moore, born 1844. On his return to Ireland, he took to the life of a tramp, reciting his verse by way of payment for lodgings. Wendal Thornton says a little mutton was distributed to the Dublin poor, on Victoria's jubilee. Did Dusty turn up for this bonanza. Maybe the Dusty in Ulysses is another Dusty. Somebody put all this together, for me.
In the Ormond Bloom wonders if a flower he received in the post could be a daisy. He knows a daisy. He remembers his daughter burying a bird in a box, entwined in a daisy chain. Could it be an ox eye, he wonders might be a daisy sport. If so it’s description, when received, is throwing. In Cyclops, June is rememered as the month dedicated to, the ox eyed goddess.
I think Joyce made a couple of mistakes in, Wandering Rocks. He was so immersed in plotting where his characters were at any time, he forgot that he set a couple of balls rolling at One O’ Clock. Bloom sees Dilly in Batchelor’s Walk, about this time. Her father returns after three. I can’t see Dilly waiting all that time. Bloom then throws a crumpled paper off O’Connell Bridge. When Comnee has reached Clongoes, circa. half three, it is drifting past Customs House, 500 yds. downstream. By four it has passed Wapping St., a further 1,000 yds. downstream.

Crown of Thorns

Joyce - Ulysses___Poor Wat

 

I feel the words, plump, plum and lump are used unexpectedly often. My suspicions were aroused further, when I discovered the quote, ” O! Robinson Crusoe.”"How could you do so,” led on to the words, ” Drove plump onto a rock.” I suspect another layer of significance is given the words, by the phrase in, Oxen of the Sun, ”Lang may your lum reek," (Scots dialect for, long may your chimney smoke), lum being a constituant of all three words. Ulysses is after all, the last stop before, Finnagans wake. Pluma, gaelic for plum may also mean a lump (Dinneen). Could L & M be motifs. Plump, plum, lump, L & M Bloom, Molly, Milly, Malichi Mulligan, lemon, melon, Lucifer, Michael.
A boasting Falstaff in, Henry IV, tells he sent two men in buckram packing. By the end of his tale it has become eleven men. Monstrous, says the prince, eleven buckram men grown out of two. Falstaff says if he is lying, he no two legged creature. Another says the hose of a buckram man fell down. In simple notation, Roman numerals for instance, two lines represent two. In modern notation they represent eleven. This looks like a precursor to a “legs eleven” piece of fun and Joyce spotted it. Shakespeare writing like Joyce. Mind you, in the last episode of Ulysses, Joyce writes like Synge. Falstaff says they were then set on by men in kendal green. Joyce tips us the wink that this passage is relevent, in, Oxen of the Sun, where we are told that kendal green dance capes, are the fashion. Buckram could be stiffened by gum. Christ fox wears leather trews. His hide presumably. Lynch’s girl reckons nakedness is the best waterproofing. There is the, Kino 11/- trouser advert. There is a substance kino which was sometimes used in tanning. One of the nicknames of the main character in “The Last of the Mohicans,” mentioned, is Leather Socks. Cerecloth gets a mention. It was a waxed cloth used mainly for shrouds. Famously, M’Intosh, turns up at the burial in a macintosh, on a hot June day. Commentaters tell us this makes him a figure of death. On top of this waterproofs, two, eleven, legs, trousers seem to be intertwined motifs cum puzzle. Bloom remembers two years of great sunspot activity, somewhere near the year of his sons birth and when he was in the high school. Sunspot activity goes on average in eleven year cycles. The basic cycle of the solar system, would you say. Actually, it transpired the solar cycle is a double sunspot cycle but who's quibbling. Shakespeare’s son died eleven years old. St. Ursula was said to be martyred with 11,000 virgins. The funeral cortege passes a turf carrying barge, the, Bugabu. Abu is gaelic for, to victory and formed a part of gaelic war cries. The deriv. of slogan is Scots gaelic for war cry. Bug is of course an english word. If we think of the G as accented, buga is gaelic, for the flax flower or the hyacinth (Dinneen). Is any of this significant. There was a mock heroic song about a turf carrying craft the, Bugaboo, that caught fire and 11,000 herrings were burned. Bloom decides the, Kino 11/- trouser, advert., should be preceded by, K 11, to catch the eye. K stands for kilo = 1,000. Maybe, 11,000 is also significant. If so, maybe, these elevens, are in their other guise of two and the christian era is being alluded to. Perhaps eleven is in some way the number of man; man being the two legged creature. Joyce knew his Tennyson. Read Tennyson’s peculiar poem, “Will Waterproof’s, Lyrical Monologue.” It strikes me as having unexpected resonance with Ulysses.
Twenty crops up from time to time as the number of years of a person’s lostness to their world. There’s Ulysses. Dedalus says Shakespeare remained twenty years away from Stratford. In, Cymbeline, Belarus and the abducted princes, are gone twenty years. I don’t know of any mention of them in Ulysses. Odd, if he didn’t. The younger prince was Dedalus’ age. Did they remind Joyce of two changlings, himself and an older brother who died in infancy. Then there was, Rip Van Winkle, Alice, in "Ben Bolt" and Kaoc the Piper. Like Ulysses, Kaoc had a dog that was still alive when he returned.
What are we to make of Dedalus's thought, "The lodge of Diamond in Armagh the splendid behung with the corpses of papishes." It behoves us to be sceptical, when reading history. All the websites I read, said it is built on the site of a battle fought between Protestants and Catholics, on the 21st, Sept., 1795, and there began the Orange Order. All that is, except for Don Gifford's, Ulysses Annotated, which stated after some years of a Protestant attempt to drive Catholics, out of Armagh, Catholics belonging to a group styled the Defenders, on said 21st Sept., nailed a notice to the lodge door, "To hell or to Connaught," a phrase that reverberated and still does, through Irish history. They were massacred as having, "experemented with resistance." If Gifford has got to the truth of it, I can only think, that the inn at Diamond, sites tell the Catholics burnt down and one says was a meeting place for, Peep O' Day Boys, was also the meeting place for local masons and de facto a lodge. It sounds as though Dedalus blames the lodge for other atrocity. Maybe, no more is meant, than that as the founding lodge of the Orange Order, it is at the root of much that has happened since or like many Irish, Joyce may have believed that in recent history, extreme elements of the loyalist establishment still colluded with the usually young and poor men that carried them out. In Ithaca, Bloom wonders whether ritual murder ever happens. Serious researchers dismiss this belief as a myth about a loathed ethnic group. I think it odd that with his jewish background he should entertain the possibility. A possibillity, only a possibillity, occurs to me. I have to tell a couple of stories, told me by my mum. Her people came from southern Cavan, some way south of where the border came to be drawn. There was a lodge of bad repute, en route, of some of the longer journeys her father and uncles had to take at times. They took a detour rather than pass by it. Catholics had disappeared on that road and it was believed this lodge went in for ritual murder. According to her, by that time, in her part of the country, the term croppy boy, was applied to men who walked the country in the warmer part of the year, looking for work on farms. The body of one such croppy boy was found locally, mutilated in a ditch. He had been working on a Protestant farm. The police sergeant said that his little girl had told him, that her friend from the farm, had said to her that there was a man hanging in their barn but that he had dismissed this as childish fantasy. The story has a paranormal or mythic epilogue, depending on your outlook. The matriach of the family was viciously anti-Catholic. When she died, a local woman was brought in to wash the corpse. She said, that there was a mark on the body everywhere the croppy boy's body had been mutilated. Reminiscent of the butcher gang and somebody having their hand nailed to a post in the most recent flair up of violence in the six counties. I imagine these stories are being forgotten. The Irish no longer have to pass on imformation oraly. There was no real recording or investigation of such occurances. Ireland will have abounded in such stories. I think it possible that Joyce himself, was not sure this belief was always myth, in terms of Ireland but was not prepared to be dismissed as pedalling myth. Bloom wonders about the possibility of atavistic delinquency. The, Jack the Ripper, murders had taken place quite recently. His victims had been terribly mutilated. At first the finger of suspicion had been pointed to Jews and Irish.
Dedalus watching the waves coming in, in pairs imagines them creating words and chords. Elsewhere he terms them “seamorse.” Reality presents itself in a plethora of dualities. Bloom contemplates the two vocal chords by a sort of multiplication and division, creating all the notes in the scale. Elsewhere he thinks everything speaks in its own way. Bloom scratches a message in the sand for Gerty. He thinks of as lettered, a scarred rock that catches his eye. Probably it reminds him of ogham, a subject he touches on later. For sure, it tells of it’s clash with the elements in a universal duality; indentation and protuberance.
Now a subtle dig. Gerty who has a great appreciation of alabaster cum pallid flesh, her own complexion, which she believes makes her look ladylike,"almost spiritual," thinks Fr. Conroy has hands like white wax. Christ said of the priests of his tradition,”They have hands like unto whited sepulchres.”
Now the boot going in. Remember Mulligan shares the name St.John with Gogarty and is having a yellow day. The word yellowjohns crops up in Cyclops. In gaelic, yellow John may mean, an aggresively disolute rake/ John Bull/ Any vicious fellow(Dinneen). Ulysses is a book of many things. It is a book of boots. Shakespeare uses the expressions, bootlesss and boots, frequently. Dinneen again: Seanabroga do deanam de rud,( seannabroga); old boots, I think.To keep refering to something incessantly. He’s having a larf, in he. Not in the spirit of Homer, it is a book of bald men. Dedalus’s heroes Aristotle and Shakespeare were bald and Aquinas was tonsured. Mulligan’s, “Seperatio a mensa”… comment, although referring to a legal phrase, I think will have brought to Joyce's mind, a crack by John Scotus Erigina, at the expense of Charles the Bald of France, when the Irish were still known as Scots by some. John and Charles the Bald of France, were sinking a few when Charles asked, "What seperates a Scot from a sot." John answered, "At this moment a table my lord." A bald character is said to have nothing between him and heaven. I think it amused Joyce to think of bald priests as having nothing between them and heaven. God tonsured. Are we meant to remember Aeschylus who had a ruddy big bird, clutching a turtle, between him and heaven. Lets hope there was nothing between him and heaven, when the turtle struck. It is a book of the body, a book of music, a flower book. Many things bloom in Ulysses. Most appositely, in the song, "The Lowbacked Car." The words, flowers of spring, and the word blooming, occurs twice in the first verse and the man thinks it well worth stepping into the cage, of the blooming god of love. Although serious Joyce really had to write this passage, tongue in cheek. In any case, his writing has an ironical streak in it. Though rarely explicity, it is a book of love. It commemorates the day Joyce met his wife.